Fender Student Guitars

The brief but interesting history of the 22.5 inch scale-length Musicmaster & Duo-Sonic, the descendant Mustang, and the swan song Swinger.

By Tim Pershing

(This article originally appeared, in a somewhat different form, as a two-part article in 20th Century Guitar Magazine, December 1996 and January 1997)


To understand Fender’s introduction of the 3/4 scale Musicmaster and Duo-Sonic guitars in the mid 1950s it is necessary to look at the aggressive development and marketing strategy of Fender Electric Instruments at the time. Fender established their presence in the electric (solid) guitar field at the start of the decade with the relatives of the Telecaster. They next released the Precision Bass, and followed that up with the Stratocaster. While all this was going on, Fender refined and added to their amplifier and steel guitar line as well. And right around the corner would be an update project for the P-Bass, the introduction of their electric Mandolin, and the development of the successor to the Strat, the radical Jazzmaster.

They were certainly one busy little company in the mid 1950s when, surveying their electric guitar line-up, they decided to add a low-end instrument to accompany their mid-priced workhorse Telecaster guitar and the high-end Stratocaster.

By all accounts the research and development of Fender’s 3/4 size guitars (the one pickup Musicmaster and the two pickup Duo-Sonic) went very quickly. Unfortunately, extensive interviews with, and even full-length books from the key players involved (Messers Fender, Hyatt, Randall, Tavares, White and Fullerton) fail to shed much light on the inception of these guitars. Even Richard Smith’s astonishing “Fender: The Sound Heard ‘round the World” spares only a few paragraphs to the student guitars. Of course, given the astounding success of the three previous guitars (the Tele, P-Bass and Strat) it’s understandable that the less prominent 3/4 scale instruments would receive little mention, but it is maddening that so little is known about the R & D side.

What is known is that the 3/4 scale Fender guitars were conceptually conceived in the latter part of 1955 as a result of a request from the Sales Department to produce an instrument for this niche. After a few prototypes were made in early 1956, Fender began advertising their 3/4 size guitars, and the first production runs for the Musicmaster were initiated in late April of 1956. The Duo-Sonic started rolling off the assembly line just a little more than two months later.

Why create a 3/4 scale length guitar? The Sales Department probably had three reasons:

  • To place a Fender instrument within economic reach of more customers.
  • To truly target the student or entry-level guitar buyer, who would likely be a child or young adult, or anyone (male or female, young or old) with smaller hands. As these players advanced, they would be more inclined to move up to (read: purchase) a full-sized Fender.
  • To compete with similar instruments offered by the competition (though in hindsight Gibson never sold too many 3/4 scale Les Paul Juniors). Still, the market for 3/4 scale electric guitars was largely unknown in the mid 1950’s, and the competition (Gibson, Rickenbacker, etc.) were readying their entry-level short-scale instruments. Fender was obliged to act.

FIRST VERSION: 1956 to 1959

The first version of 3/4 scale Fender guitars are characterized by the one-piece maple neck, the gold anodized metal pickguard, and the conservative beige color. These are classic ’50s Fender appointments, applied to a design that was inspired at least in part by the timeless Stratocaster.

First version features:

  • A one-piece bolt-on fretted maple neck of 22.5 inch scale length with 21 frets and 1 5/8 inches wide at the nut. The truss rod was installed through a channel routed in the back of the neck, and a “skunk stripe” of darker wood (walnut) was used to fill in the channel. These necks have a definite “V” profile, in hard and soft variations. Standard Fender fret wire was installed.
  • The exact headstock dimensions as the Stratocaster. A single, butterfly string retainer. Six on a side, individual “single-line” Kluson Deluxe tuning gears with white plastic buttons. The earliest examples (from the Spring of 1956) are fitted with “blank-line” Kluson gears.
  • A small, rectangular chrome-plated metal bridge; top-loading, with three 3-way adjustable solid steel saddles and topped by a removable chrome-plated bridge cover.
  • A solid, bevel-edged slab body of poplar or similar grade wood, usually in two or more glued-together pieces. The bodies were always routed for two pickups, regardless of final configuration. These bodies were finished in the same beige color (Desert Sand) that was used on Fender’s low-end steel guitars; sort of an opaque “Blonde”. Because they were not sealed with a clear coat of lacquer, they are not as prone to “yellowing” as other Fender guitars from that era.
  • A gold anodized metal pickguard/control plate, containing the entire wiring harness: volume & tone potentiometers, the 1/4 inch jack, and the pickup configuration: a single, angled neck pickup for the Musicmaster, and an additional bridge pickup and 3 way toggle switch (located on the upper treble bout) for the Duo-Sonic. These pickups were black bobbin single-coils, with pole pieces milled flat on the top to accept the solid, white plastic pickup cover. Traditional chrome barrel knobs finished off the control plate.
  • A silver “spaghetti” logo decal was affixed to the headstock for the Musicmaster, gold for the Duo. Under the Fender name, and slightly to the right, appeared the name of the model, in small capital letters and framed in quotation marks.

A note on assembly-line frugality: the Musicmaster and Duo-Sonic guitars shared many parts with another Fender product that predates their introduction, the Champ steel guitar. Among other things, the pickups and covers, the plastic-tipped Kluson gears, the knobs and even the Desert Sand finish were applied to both the Champ lap steels and the 3/4 scale student guitars!

An additional note about the very first production run of Musicmasters:

Enough examples have surfaced that we now have a pretty clear picture of the first production run of the Musicmaster. Neck dates have been noted with both m/yy dates (4-56) and with specific dates from the last two weeks (4-20-56, for example) of the month of April. The following features have been noted (for the first production run only):

  • Gun-metal black finished sheet metal pickguards.
  • Ash bodies on some (or most) of the first-run guitars.
  • Very “crude” body routs (perhaps hand routed) are known on the very earliest examples.
  • Exclusively fitted with single (blank) line Kluson tuners.

Structural evolution during the 1956 – 1959 period:

During the course of 1958 the necks became narrower at the nut (1 1/2 inches wide) and more rounded in profile, becoming almost “oval” by early 1959. The solid steel saddles were replaced with the threaded style saddles. The anodization became a bit thicker and somewhat more durable on the pickguard.

Color notes:

A small number of instruments were produced in a color other than beige. At least a few Red examples (some with black pickup covers) from circa 1957/1958 are known to exist, but photographs that have circulated of several other color schemes are not convincing proof, in my humble opinion, that they are necessarily original.

In particular is a widely distributed photograph of an (implied) original sunburst Musicmaster that has appeared in many of the popular GPI books. This infamous instrument is CLEARLY a refin. In the case of any alleged custom color Fender, believe ONLY what you can see and verify with your own eyes.

In any event, “custom” colors on the early 3/4 scale Fenders are clearly very, very unusual and quite rare.

In the middle of 1959 the entire Fender line of guitars went through an overhaul, and the 3/4 scale guitars were no different.


The second version of the 3/4 scale Fenders are distinguished, like all Fender guitars of that period, by the transition from maple necks to rosewood fretboards; by the introduction of new colors, and by terrific quality control and attention to detail. All the instruments produced by Fender during this era are highly prized by collectors and players.

Second version features:

  • The maple necks were fitted with a “slab” rosewood fingerboard (milled flat on the bottom) with “clay” dot position markers. The truss rod could be installed through the top of the neck, prior to gluing on the separate fingerboard, so the “skunk stripe” route was no longer necessary. Since the rosewood board significantly strengthened the neck, thinner neck profiles were possible

(this was and is a more popular profile for electric guitars) and the “oval” profile necks appeared immediately.

  • The neck pocket routing was changed slightly to accept the marginally thinner necks, and the routing and screw pattern for the pickguard was altered; 4 additional screws were affixed along with the original 8. The standard color scheme was changed from Desert Sand to a tan color, the name of which was evidently never heavily promoted by Fender, and is not known to the author.
  • The metal pickguard, its gold anodization being prone to “wear through” to bare metal, was replaced with a creme-colored, one piece plastic guard with beveled edges. A thin metal shielding plate was placed underneath the guard to help shield the pickup assembly from electronic interference. The white plastic pickup covers were changed to a dark brown.

During the summer of 1959, when the transition was made from the first to the second version of the 3/4 scale guitars, overlaps of materials were certainly possible, due to the assembly-line nature of the construction of the instruments. Parts in stock were always used up by Fender!

A few rosewood board guitars with metal pickguards, for example, would not be surprising. It is certain that Fender had an excess of the “old” bodies that were fitted to the “new” rosewood necks. These are easy to spot as they have only 11 securing screws holding the plastic pickguard to the body (the screw located roughly between the tone knob & the jack is missing; there’s nothing underneath to screw into!).

Structural evolution during the 1959 – 1964 period:

Around the middle of 1962, the slab rosewood fretboard was replaced by a thinner curved “veneer” rosewood board. In the course of 1963 the spacing of the two position dots at the 12th fret became narrower. The profile of the neck gradually became fuller and more rounded, most noticeably towards the end of 1963. Headstocks became thicker. The Fender label on the headstock gained a patent number (PAT 2,573,254) in the middle of 1961. The Duo-Sonic began sporting the thicker gold “transition” logo in the Spring of 1964. The threading on the steel saddles became a bit coarser during 1963 as well.

Color notes:

By late 1961 (or possibly early 1962) a sunburst color option was added, and in at least one Fender publication it was referred to as “Shaded Sunburst”. The 3/4 scale ‘burst was different than the regular Fender style in that it ran, from the inside out, yellow to red to maroon; no black on the outer edge, and the center yellow area was fairly opaque (compared to the “normal” Fender sunburst). The sunburst guitars were fitted with a white one-piece plastic pickguard with beveled edges, and the same brown pickup covers. The tan color was dropped by early ‘62 and Sunburst became the standard trim. Most (or all?) of these early ‘burst guitars have been found with the sunburst finish sprayed over a tan finish. Left over tan paint was evidently used as an undercoat for some time to come. White was offered as a color option by mid 1963. The white guitars were fitted with a “nitro” tortoise (b/w/t) pickguard and stark white pickup covers. Sunburst was phased at this time. Another noteworthy color option appeared roughly at this time: “Red Mahogany”, Fender’s answer to cherry red (a see-through red finish that appeared sporadically in ’63 and ’64). Red Mahogany was initially offered on mahogany-bodied guitars, but by mid-’64 it was applied to the normal wood (poplar, etc) as well. Red Mahogany instruments were not produced in large quantities (by Fender standards) and the properties of the paint made it more susceptible to checking and cracking, so finding a guitar with the finish intact is difficult, though not impossible. The use of mahogany (as a body wood) was uncommon at Fender but examples have turned up on most models. At any rate, the Red Mahogany guitars were normally fitted with white guards and black covers, although tortoise guards could have been applied to some of the non-white instruments.

Caution: since the entire electronic assembly can be literally lifted off the guitar by simply unscrewing the pickguard, it would be a simple matter for anyone to install an assembly from one (color) guitar to another. Whether Fender actually produced (for example) white painted guitars with white pickguards is anyone’s guess. In the booming, assembly-line world of Fender in the mid-1960’s, anything was possible. However, in assessing the originality of a 30 year-old instrument today, it is best to be guided by what was probable.

A major re-working of the “Student Guitar” line was afoot in 1964, and in August of that year the Fender Mustang debuted (essentially a Duo-Sonic with tremolo). The Musicmaster and Duo-Sonic received extensive face-lifts (matching them in appearance with the Mustang), and all three guitars were offered in “full” and “short” scale versions. Thus, the 3/4 scale Fender guitar began its descent into oblivion.


The so-called “II” series guitars featured redesigned appointments and changes to the classic headstock shape. Although the outline of the body remained relatively stable (the waist of the body was slightly offset) other features of the instruments were substantially altered. The versatility of optional scale lengths, a design feature of the II series, ultimately doomed the 3/4 scale neck, as most players evidently preferred the longer 24″ scale length (at no additional cost). The Mustang was an instant hit, and ironically its popularity would shortly allow Fender to discontinue the Duo-Sonic.

Third version features:

  • The headstock, for so many years the twin of the Stratocaster, was enlarged in the bout below the tuning gears, where the label was affixed. The new shape was unique to the 3/4 scale necks, putting it somewhere between the Jazzmaster and the (soon to be) re-styled Stratocaster. With this change came an alteration in the spacing of the two position markers at the 12th fret. Oddly, they were pushed further apart to almost their original wide spacing.
  • The bridge plate for the Musicmaster and Duo-Sonic was noticeably enlarged and modified in such a way that it would no longer receive a chrome cover. The guitars remained top-loading, however, with the same three saddle arrangement. The redesigned bridge size and placement could (economically) accommodate intonation for either short or long scale length necks.
  • The Mustang received a completely new “DYNAMIC VIBRATO” bridge/tailpiece unit. The bridge was essentially Fender’s crude interpretation of a floating “tune-o-matic”; the inertia bar studs were affixed to springs (under the plate) that counteracted the pull of string tension. A simple arm, attached to the bar, allowed vibrato between string and spring tension.
  • Body routings were changed to accept the redesigned pickup and control layout (and the Mustang’s vibrato contraption), though the body shape was not terribly different. A total of 15 screws held the pickguard/control plates in place, 12 and 3 respectively.
  • The bridge pickup was slanted (to align the pole pieces with the strings) and the neck pickup was moved slightly towards the neck. This may have been another concession for the long scale neck option. The pickguard was separated from the control plate, and it received an outward-rounding curve on the top (low E) side. White colored guitars still came with tortoise guards, but the pickup covers were initially changed to an off-white, slightly translucent plastic. Red colored instruments came equipped with “crushed pearl” (w/b/p) guards, and black plastic pickup covers. The thin metal shielding plate was discarded in favor of 4 metal shielding/ground plates that were inserted into the bottom of the body routings.
  • The 2-pickup instruments received a pair of slider switches in the rounded top (low E side) of the pickguard. Controlling each pickup separately, the switch turned the pickup “off” in the middle position, and would change the “phasing” of the pickup by moving the switch to the left or right of the off position. Several combinations of pickups and phasing were possible.
  • The separate control plate was chrome-plated metal, and housed the volume & tone pots, as well as the 1/4 inch jack. The knobs were changed to a skirted, seven-sided hard black plastic style.
  • As soon as the previous labels held in stock were used up, a new label was applied to the headstocks of the Musicmaster and Duo-Sonic. Both received the thicker gold “transition” Fender logo, with the model name (MUSICMASTER II or DUO-SONIC II) in slightly bolder print. Two patent numbers (PAT. 2,573,254 3,143,028) were initially included; they were shortly replaced by three numbers. The Mustang label had the same gold Fender logo, but the model name followed in flowing bold “motion” block letters, and a string of patent numbers (DES. 186,826 PAT. 2.960,900 2,741,146 & PAT. PEND.) rode underneath for a short time; five numbers would soon follow. A separate “OFFSET Contour Body” decal was affixed to the end of the headstock of the 3/4 necked Mustangs, though contouring was not offered on any Mustang until the “Competition” colors were introduced circa 1967.

Note: the transition from the original to the “II” series guitars appears to be quite definite, with no overlap of parts (necks, pickguards, routed bodies) evident from the previous series.

Another note: all the newly redesigned Duos and MMs are considered “II” series guitars, regardless of scale length or label applied to the headstock. It is a common misconception to refer to only long scale examples as “II” series, a distinction Fender never made.

Structural evolution during the 1964 – 1967 period:

The clay dot position markers were replaced with pearloid dots towards the end of 1964. Overlaps do occur where pearl top and clay side markers appear. The pearl dots were slightly larger than the clay, but the spacing of the double dots at the 12th fret remained the same. Necks continued to grow slightly thicker in the headstock, more rounded in profile, and displayed less-smooth, more squared-off shouldering. Double line Kluson Deluxe tuners, with white plastic buttons, also appeared at the end of 1964. These became the standard trim for the remainder of the life of the 3/4 scale guitar necks.

Nitrate (or celluloid) pickguards also disappeared about this time (they were prone to shrink, warp, wrinkle, discolor, etc.) and were replaced by similar styled plastic guards. The earliest examples were slightly thicker than those produced later in the ’60s.

Roughly concurrent with the introduction of the Mustang was the changeover from black bobbin pickups to a light gray fiber material (although the top bobbon remained black for a while), and by 1966 the bright copper formvar winding wire was replaced by a plain enamel wire. Black bobbin (top & bottom) pickups reappeared in 1967 on all the student guitars; it is not known to the author why this happened but I would speculate that they were left-over from an earlier era.

Noticeably heavier bodies began to appear as well, though “inconsistent” is the best way to describe guitar weight during this period.

Color notes:

A Daphne blue-like color option was added to the student guitar line in mid-1964, and a Dakota red-like color was added or in place at that time as well, making the standard color schemes for the new student guitar line red, white and blue. Patriotic with a purpose: a reminder to buyers that these instruments were made in the USA. Blue guitars received the same white pearloid pickguards and black pickup covers as the red instruments, while white guitars retained the tortoise guards and off-white covers.

From the latter part of 1963 well into the late 1960s, the entire Fender line of guitars began to show the negative effects of increased production. Loss of attention to detail; inconsistency due to an influx of new workers; a lessening in the quality of base materials; and other factors all contributed to the overall decline in quality that was witnessed during this period.

1967 would seem to a rather arbitrary year to signal the “end” of the regular production of 3/4 scale Fender guitars, since Fender continued to offer (in its promotional material anyway) the short scale option for its student guitars well into the early ’70s. For the most part, Fender used a lot of surplus ’66 parts to assemble their ’67 guitars anyway, and the popularity of the long scale neck option (combined with the bottom falling out of the electric guitar market) contributed to the disappearance of the 3/4 necks. They would not be seen again until 1969, when the vast majority of the surplus 3/4 scale necks were used-up on la dolce vita Swinger.

Note: a few 3/4 necks evidently found their on to Competition Mustangs (of all things) and this has been verified by the author. This certainly raises the question of whether a few made it out of the factory attached to a Musicmaster, Duo-Sonic (or even Bronco) body. Since no examples have as yet turned up, I’ll leave that as an open question.


The final version of the 3/4 scale Fender guitar is the infamous Swinger. Swingers are noted for their “chopped off” features and relative scarcity. They serve as an example of what absurdities CBS Fender was capable of commiting.

Final version features:

  • Surplus Fender “Bass V” bodies (a slow selling 5-string bass from earlier in the decade) were substantially altered to create the “Swinger” body: the top horn (at the strap button) was chopped off at an angle, and the bottom of the body (at the lower strap button) was radically scooped out into a semi- circle. Contouring was added front and back. An additional route was made for the placement of the student single-coil pickup.
  • Left over 3/4 scale neck blanks, most marked with summer of 1966 dates (neck blanks were and are, very early in their life cycle, date marked or stamped) were also altered. The familiar Fender headstock design was sacrificed by cutting right through the circular end (where the “Original Contour” sticker was placed) and forming an “arrow” shaped headstock.
  • The pickguard was a stock Musicmaster item, modified by reducing and re- contouring the lower bout (high E side) of the guard to conform to the slightly different shape of the Bass V body. It is a subtle, but measurable, alteration.
  • The electronics, including the pickup, control plate and knobs, were strictly off the shelf student guitar items.
  • In an effort to spur sales of these bastard guitars, Fender relented on their “only basic colors for student guitars” policy and offered the Swinger in a variety of finishes. In addition to the standard red, white and blue, Swingers were produced in virtually every color option available at the time.
  • A black “CBS” Fender logo was applied on the headstock, under the finish. The “Swinger” label, in similar script, was applied over the finish. This sloppy method of application has resulted, over the years, in the loss or removal of the Swinger label from many of the guitars. This undoubtedly has contributed to the confusing list of names (Musiclander, Arrow) that have been misapplied to the model.

The final structural evolution:

Fender was guitar happy in the mid- ’60s, producing instruments as fast as they could. When the market slacked off (circa 1967) Fender found themselves with an abundance of parts for guitars that were never assembled and shipped; no one was ordering them.

As a consequence, in 1969 Fender unloaded their inventory of left-over parts by assembling the Swinger, and performed a similar disfigurement to create the Fender Custom. However, while the Custom did appear in Fender advertising literature, the Swinger was never officially promoted, and by all accounts was produced and then quickly forgotten in just a few months. It was apparently never Fender’s intention to tool up for further runs of Swingers; it was just a way to profitably jettison parts in stock.

Oddly enough, Fender continued to advertise the 3/4 scale option for their Musicmaster and Mustang guitars into the 1970s. While it is certainly possible that Fender may have produced a short scale student guitar in the early ’70s (as a special order perhaps) no example of any such instrument has surfaced. It appears that the original 3/4 scale Fender guitar was through.

Reissue Duo-Sonic: 1993 to the present:

It should be noted that Fender Musical Instrument Corporation reissued a short scale Duo-Sonic in 1993. Though not a faithful recreation of the original, these instruments do resemble in form the vintage Duo-Sonics of the ’50s and ’60s. Manufactured in Mexico, they do not however approach in any way the quality of the originals. They serve mostly as a reminder of the difficulties of satisfactorily producing an economical instrument in today’s world economy. This reissue was discontinued at the end of 1997, only to be replaced by a nearly identical Chinese-built model under the “Squier” nameplate in 1998. That instrument remains in production as of the summer of 1999.


Like other Fender guitars from this period, the age of an original student Fender guitar can be approximated by the many dated parts that make up the whole.


Necks were consistently dated at the heel end, and offer the most widely accepted reference when discussing a specific Fender guitar’s age. However, it must be noted that this date was applied fairly early in the neck construction cycle, and consequently pre-dates by weeks or even months the actual assembly of the guitar.

Neck dates were initially applied by the worker cutting or shaping the neck, and were hand-written in pencil as MM-YY. Neck dating was suspended from the late Spring of 1959 through the early Spring of 1960, but then returned in the same format and continued until early 1962.

At that point Fender began using an ink stamp that displayed a neck code, month & year, and neck width (at the nut). The stamp for the short scale Fender necks appeared, for example, as: 3/4MAY62A, where 3/4 = the neck code, MAY = the month of production, 62 = the year of production, and A = the neck width code applied to instruments with a nut width of 1 1/2 inches. Short scale necks were no longer offered in a standard width (1 5/8″, code B) or any other width at this point.

In 1964, when the student guitar line was overhauled, a new neck code “9” was applied to the redesigned short scale necks, replacing the 3/4 code. The rest of the naming convention stayed the same for the brief remainder of the life of the short scale necks, for example: 9SEP64A.

Thus a neck code of “9” will appear on any 3/4 scale II series guitar regardless of model; short scale Musicmasters, Duo-Sonics and Mustangs (Swingers too) are all marked the same. Incidentally, the long scale student guitar necks initially received a neck code of “8”.


Volume and tone potentiometers are also date stamped, but once again this stamp refers to the date the pot was manufactured and has little to do with the date a guitar is assembled (except that it would, by necessity, have to precede the assembly date). For many periods of production Fender was able to move parts through their supply bins quickly, so it is not unusual to find pot dates within a few weeks or months of neck dates.

During the period in 1959-1960 when neck dating was suspended, potentiometers are often the only other visibly dated part on Fender guitars. Original pots can at least tell you the outside maximum potential age the guitar; unfortunately Fender purchasing and production in the ’50s often led to pots dates trailing neck dates by many months. Beware of the pitfalls of this method of dating.

Codes are stamped on the top or the side of the pot; there is usually a long string of numbers. Embedded within this string is a three digit manufacturer’s code (137 and 304 are common on Fender products) followed by a three or four digit date code, which is read YWW or YYWW (year & week). The one digit year codes were used in the ’50s, two digit year codes in the ’60s and there after. Thus a code of 304-620 would be a Stackpole pot manufactured in the 20th week of 1956, and a code of 137-6645 would be a CTS pot manufactured in the 45th week of 1966.

Body dates:

Penciled body dates, which were fairly common on Fender guitars of the ’50s and early ’60s, are not visible on short scale Fenders due to the opaque nature of the finishes offered on these instruments (during that period). Body dates were phased out at about the same time the Shaded Sunburst finish was offered on the student line. Later, as production of all Fender guitars began to rapidly expand in the mid-’60s, body dates in the form of ink or impression stamps appear with some frequency.

Pickup dates:

By the beginning of the spring of 1964 Fender started to mark the bottom (and/or sometimes the top) of the pickup bobbin with a small yellow manufacture/inspection date stamp. The stamp featured initials, month, day and year, and read (for example): EP JUN 22 ’64. By the end of the summer, when Fender began to use the light gray fiber bobbins, the stamp was discarded in favor of a hand-written date and initials, such as: 10-16-64 DM (although the yellow stamp may still appear on the black, top bobbin – at least into January of ’65) .In the course of 1965 the initials were dropped and just the date was written, usually in pencil (or sometimes in a thick grease pencil or felt pen). Again, this date refers to the manufacture or inspection date of the pickup and is not the assembly date of the guitar.

As a general rule, when manufacturing was moving right along, the neck, body, pot and pickup dates are all pretty close (say within a few months of one another). On an original guitar however, the only real relationship between these dates is that all these disparate parts were pulled out of their respective holding places and bolted together to form the whole. The specific date of that procedure is not recorded anywhere on the guitar.

Other markings:

There are many other markings typically found on student Fenders; markings that generally reveal the assembly-line production and inspection nature of the beast.

Though often interesting (such as the first name of the worker assembling the pickup harness, penciled on the bottom of the pickguard) these markings are not at present useful in accurately dating a Fender guitar.

Serial Numbers:

The subject of serial numbers, as applied to the neck plate of ’50s through ’70s Fender guitars, is difficult to do justice to in only a paragraph or so. Thankfully, James Werner (the noted Fender collector from Letts, Iowa) has amassed a compendium of Fender guitar serial numbers, which has understandably become a standard reference on the topic. With his kind permission I have attached an abridged list of student Fender instruments.

This list is intended to give the reader a general idea of the progression of serial numbers and neck dates through the life of the 3/4 scale guitar production, though it should be noted that not all instruments listed after mid-1964 are necessarily short scale.

The list must also include the standard disclaimer that Fender neck plate serial numbers were not applied in strict numerical order, period. Groupings are possible and the overall trend is one of numerical progression, but many inconsistencies exist. Remember that Fender was an assembly-line manufacturer, and the application of neck plates (stored in no particular order in parts bins) was simply another step in the process.

Spot dating guide:

As previously detailed, there are structural features that clearly identify the era of production of the short-scale Fender guitars. As a quick, general reference:

Maple neck = mid 1956 to mid 1959

Slab-board = mid 1959 to mid 1962 (patent numbers on headstock by mid 1961)

Curved fingerboard = mid 1962 on

Narrow spacing of 12th fret position markers = mid 1963 to mid 1964

“II” series configuration = mid 1964 on

Pearl dot markers = very late 1964 on


Sound and feel are subjective items, and the tenor of this article is one of objective observations. However, a few words on the performance of the student Fender guitars may be insightful, particularly to those who have never played them.

There are inherent flaws in the design of the 3/4 scale Fender that limit its usefulness as a professional or “working” instrument. To anyone accustomed to the Strat/Tele scale length of 25.5″, the 3/4 neck will feel cramped. By nature, a shorter scale length will cause changes in tuning (even slight) to be more pronounced. Also, the bridge design (two strings per saddle) hampers precise intonation. In short, these instruments are harder to keep in tune than their full-sized brothers.

Having said that, they still exhibit the feel of the era in which they were produced. Allowing for the difference in fret spacing, a maple-necked Musicmaster does not “feel” terribly different than a maple-necked Strat. They certainly do work well for those (either by age or disposition) with smaller hands, but that does not preclude their value to others. Stevie Ray Vaughan regularly used an early ’60s Musicmaster to warm up on before gigs in the 1980s. According to the information presented when the guitar was auctioned off, Vaughan liked the “coarser” feel of the student Fender; the stage guitar felt all the more refined when he went to perform. Other players, from notable guitar hero Jimi Hendrix to music revolutionary David Byrne, have used and performed with 3/4 scale Fender guitars (at some point in their careers).

Another limitation of the short scale length is the reduction in resonance produced: even though thay are tuned to the same pitch (as a full-scale guitar) the strings are shorter, so they vibrate less and produce less output. As a consequence, the bridge pickup (where the strings vibrate the least) on a Duo or Mustang is pretty thin sounding. However, the neck pickup (where the strings travel further and vibrate more) can produce plenty of vintage Fender single-coil tone. This is not to suggest that it sounds “as good as a Strat”, but it is very Strat-like.


Fender’s 3/4 scale guitars are still generally held in low regard by the collecting and retail communities (though that hasn’t prevented some dealers from jacking up their asking prices for vintage Musicmasters, Duos and Mustangs to unprecedented levels). The pirating of vintage parts from the little guitars, most notably the neckplates, has sadly become a common practice.

I am annoyed enough by this prevalent disdain to point out that these classic Fender instruments were designed by the same (phenomenal) team that produced the Stratocaster, and were built on the same assembly line, by the same craftsmen and women (and using many of the same materials) as the other great Fender guitars. The Stratocaster reference is purposeful, since that is the guitar the original student Fenders most resemble; hardly an unflattering comparison!

But I am also relieved that the notoriety (and pricing) that has been accorded to other Fender models has not been bestowed upon the 3/4 instruments: this means that these wonderful, valid artifacts of the Golden Age of Fender production are still available to (and within financial reach of) the common man.


The author wishes to acknowledge the invaluable assistance of Greg Gagliano, another Fenderholic, who contributed greatly (of his time and expertise) to the construction of this article, and to thank James Werner for his input and for the use of his serial number data. This work would never have materialized were it not for the generous nature and inspiration provided by these two individuals. Significant contributions have also been provided by Marcel Roy and James Makishima. I acknowledge their spirit of sharing collected data and challenging my assumptions!

About the Author:

Tim Pershing lives and works in the San Francisco area. He is an occasional contributor to the vintage guitar magazine “20th Century Guitar”. He divides his free time between collecting vintage US paper currency, studying Fender student guitars, and playing bass in a Bay Area band named Tweak Beach. His own web page dedicated to 3/4 scale Fenders (working title: Leo Fender’s ‘Student Bodies’) is currently under development. Mr. Pershing invites comments, correcting information and observations regarding 3/4 scale Fender guitars. He may be reached through e-mail at duosonic@pacbell.net.

1964 Ford Mustang

The Ford Mustang as the first — and so far the only — car to receive the Tiffany Award for Excellence in American Design.  Not bad for a car that was designed using mostly existing components, an existing chassis (from the Ford Falcon), and base price of $2368.  A rediscovery of the classic proportions of long hood and short deck set the Mustang apart from its contemporaries.  The Mustang was also an instant hit wîth the car-buying public.  Over 100,000 were sold in the first four months and in less than 24 months Ford had sold its 1 millionth Mustang, a record that has yet to be equalled or eclipsed.  The Mustang was quite simply the right car at the right time.
The Mustang created a category of cars, called ‘Pony’ cars.  The Mustang’s debut in the spring of 1964 (the early models were called 1964 and 1/2) took advantage of the lack of new models from other makers.  It took other automakers until 1967 to bring out real competition for the Mustang.  As the advertisements on display show, the Mustang was promoted as ‘a car to escape the mundane nature of life.’

After the record-breaking success of the Falcon, Ford decided to offer the public a small sporty car in the lower price range – a decision that promptly gained success with the motoring public and which continues to this day.
During its debut in the mid-1964, the Mustang was offered in a 108-inch wheelbase hardtop coupe or convertible that weighed nearly 2,500 pounds and cost under $2,700 for the convertible and under $2,400 for the hardtop.  Since it was introduced mid-year, the Mustang faced virtually no competition.  By the end of 1964, 263,434 Mustangs had been sold – and that level of popularity has not diminished.

The Mustang was introduced at the 1965 New York World’s Fair, Mustang Mania instantly swept the country, and a new automotive market segment was created – the 2+2 or better known as the ‘ponycar.’  Though its mechanical underpinnings descended from the Falcon, the Mustang was completely different.  It was a compact, tight, clean package weighing in at a modest 2,550 pounds – a departure from the ever-enlarging American cars of the day.  The classic long-hood short-rear-deck combined wîth a forward-leaning grille, elegant blade bumpers, sculptured body sides, fully exposed wheel openings and restrained use of bright trim gave the car a unique look that belied its affordability.  Its looks were backed up wîth power, providing three optional V8 engines wîth up to 271 horsepower.  Other options included automatic transmission, power steering and brakes, styled chrome wheels and air conditioning.  Not surprisingly, the entry-level modes were a minority of the production.

To say that the first Mustang was a success is an understatement.  Following the introduction, the Mustang was on the cover of both Time and Newsweek.  A week before introduction, Ford ran ads wîth the air times for the first television commercials, which all three networks broadcasted simultaneously.  Mustang was selected as the Official Pace Car for the 1964 Indianapolis 500, and more than 22,000 orders were taken the first day.  By its first anniversary, over 418,000 Mustangs had been sold, breaking the all-time record for first year sales of a new nameplate.

Tin Toy Robots: A brief history

While toys were made in Japan before WWII, they were generally simple and poor quality. Before the war Germany was the world’s major toy manufacturer, followed by the US. Obviously during the war, virtually all toy manufacturing in Japan and Germany stopped. This almost happened in the US but companies like Marx and Gilbert convinced Washington to allow toys to be made, so a sense of normalcy could remain on the home front. After the war the Marshall Plan or plans were enstated to rebuild European and Japanese industry. Of General MacArthur’s many after war duties, industrial rehabilitation of Japan was job one.

The idea was to give Japan all the low profit, high labor, small item manufacturing industries that were no longer attractive in the US. Not to drastically affect US industry, items like cheap cameras, portable radios and toys were suggested for Japan.

The US companies that made these items before the war, could now market these imported items and make more profit than if they made them. US toy importers like Marx, Rosco, Cragstan and Mego began selling toys manufactured by Masudaya, Nomura, Daiya, Yoshiya, Yonezawa and Horikawa.
These first Japanese toys were friction or clockwork powered, stamped steel and based on many popular American and German toys from before the war. The Japanese with an almost religious zeal to succeed, quickly began to perfect their designs to compete against each other.

To woo the world’s largest toy market, the US, these former arms manufacturers soon added unique actions, tin lithography and battery power to their creations. By the mid 50’s, Japan won the toy war and emerged as the worlds number one manufacturer, eclipsing the US and Germany.

The first toy robot is believed to be the boxy, yellow, clockwork Robot Lilliput from Japan.. Although many collectors believe this robot to be from the late 1930’s, experts are begining to atribute it to the mid 1940’s, after the war. The next Japanese robot to make an appearance, was the late 1940’s Atomic Robot Man.

This second robot’s date of birth is definitely known, since it was given out as a promo item at the New York Sci-fi convention in 1950. The box for Atomic Robot Man showed an ironic scene of the robot marching through a decimated city, complete with an atomic mushroom cloud…
While Japanese toys began to appear in the US shortly after the war, most of the first robots were actually American made. The first to show up in the Sears Christmas Book was Ideal’s crank operated Robert the Robot in 1954. Soon came, Marvelous Mike, The Robot Dog, Z-Man, Big Max and Marx Electric robot, all American made. Japan was about to unleash its secret weapon, in 1955 battery operated toys began to arrive from Japan.
Batteries were used long before in toys, but this was usually only for lights or noise. The Japanese started to use small battery operated motors to power everything from fuzzy poodles, to army tanks and of course robots. This was fueled by the movie Forbidden Planet, which introduced Robby the Robot in 1956 and by the launch of Sputnik in 57. Robby the Robot is likely the most copied, with a hundred or two variations, many battery operated and Japanese. While none of these “Robby” toys were licensed, all are unmistakable with names like Planet Robot and Mechanized Robot.

Unlike other collectables, toy robots are sometimes difficult to attribute. While a “Made in Japan” robot may have an American company logo or well known Japanese makers mark on it, that still doesn’t necessarily tell you who made it. Many manufactured items in Japan were subcontracted out, made by piecework in someone’s home or bought from an unknown supplier. To complicate things even more, tin toys from Japan were even made from recycled materials. You only have to open up an old tin toy to find out that the inside may have the printing from a Japanese tuna can or an imported powdered milk can. Rejected tin from a canning plant would be recycled and reprinted on the reverse side to produce a toy robot or spaceship. Though it is unlikely that larger toys were ever made from actual cans.

One of the most prolific makers of Japanese battery operated toys was the Horikawa company who used the trade logo SH . Horikawa sold literally hundreds of different tin robots, rockets and space stations. In fact Horikawa sold so many different robots in the 1950’s through 80’s that new variations are being found regularly by collectors. While Horikawa is a well known name in Japanese toys, many don’t realize that they were a wholesaler and not a manufacturer. Most of their robots, as well as the toys of other famous companies, were actually made by the Metal House company of Tokyo. While virtually all of the well know Japanese robot and space toy sellers of the past no longer exist, Metal House still does. A family business which started before the war, Metal House still makes battery operated tin robots in limited quantities for collectors.

Darryl (Robotnut) (c) 2003